Instructions to Authors

Review Articles

These articles should contain a covering letter, title page, summary (need not be structured) and key words. They should be written under appropriate sub-headings. The authors are encouraged to use flowcharts, boxes, cartoons, tables and figures for better presentation.

Original Research Articles

These may either be a full length research article or a short communication. These papers should be arranged into the following sections:
1. Covering letter
2. Title page
3. Abstract and key words
4. Introduction
5. Materials and Methods
6. Results
7. Discussion
8. Acknowledgment
9. References
10. Tables
11. Figures

1. Covering Letter
In addition to the general details (name, address, contact details including mobile number and email address of the corresponding author), it should mention in brief in what theme the article is submitted
2. Title page
It should be paginated as page 1 of the paper. It should include the title (No more than 150 character including space, 16 pt Times New Roman, bold, centre justified) authors’ names and affiliations (8 pt Times New Roman, centre justified), address for correspondence including e-mail address (8 pt Times New Roman, left justified).
3. Abstract and key words
It must start on a new page carrying the following information: (a) Title (without authors’ names or affiliations), (b) Abstract, (c) Key words. It should not exceed 250 words excluding the title and the key words. The abstract must be concise, clear and informative rather than indicative. The abstract must be in a structured form (OBJECTIVES, METHODS, RESULTS, and CONCLUSIONS) and explain briefly what was intended, done, observed, and concluded. The conclusions and recommendations not found in the text of the article should not be given in the abstract.

Key words: Provide 3-5 keywords which will help the readers or indexing agencies in crossindexing the study.
4. Introduction
It should start on a new page. Essentially this section must introduce the subject and briefly say how the idea for research originated. Give a concise background of the study. Do not review literature extensively but provide the most recent work that has a direct bearing on the subject. Justification for research aims and objectives must be clearly mentioned without any ambiguity. The purpose of the study should be stated at the end.
5. Materials and Methods
This section should deal with the materials used and the methodology (how the work was carried out). The procedure adopted should be described in sufficient details to allow the experiment to be interpreted and repeated by the readers, if desired. The number of subjects, the number of groups, the study design, sources of drugs with dosage regimen or instruments used, statistical methods and ethical aspects must be mentioned under the section. The data collection procedure must be described. If a procedure is a commonly used, giving a previously published reference would suffice. The nomenclature, the source of material and equipment used, with details of the manufacturer in parentheses, should be clearly mentioned. Drugs and chemicals should be precisely identified using their non-proprietary names or generic names. The doses of drugs should be given as unit weight per kilogram body weight e.g., mg/kg. The routes of administration may be abbreviated. Statistical Methods: The variation of data should be expressed in terms of the standard error of mean (SEM) or the standard deviation (SD), along with the number of observations (n). The details of statistical tests used and the level of significance should be stated. If more than one test is used it is important to indicate which groups and parameters have been
subjected to which test.
6. Results
The results should be stated concisely without comments. They should be presented in logical sequence in the text with appropriate reference to tables and/or figures. The data given in tables or figures should not be repeated in the text. The same data should not be presented in both tabular and graphic forms. Simple data may be given in the text itself instead of figures or tables. Avoid discussions and conclusions in the results section.
7. Discussion and Conclusion
This section should deal with the interpretation, rather than recapitulation of results. It is important to discuss the new and significant observations in the light of previous work. Discuss also the weaknesses or pitfalls in the study. New hypotheses or recommendations can be put forth. Avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the data. Repetition of information given under Introduction and Results should be avoided. Conclusions must be drawn considering the strengths and weaknesses of the study. They must be conveyed in the last paragraph under Discussion. Make sure conclusions drawn should tally with the objectives stated under Introduction.
8. Acknowledgements
These should be typed on a new page. Acknowledge only those who have contributed to the scientific content or provided technical support. Sources of financial support may be mentioned.
9. References
It should begin on a new page. The number of references should normally be restricted to a maximum of 25 for a full paper. Majority of them should preferably be of articles published in the last 5 years. Papers which have been submitted and accepted but not yet published may be included in the list of references with the name of the journal and indicated as “In press”. A photocopy of the acceptance letter should be submitted with the manuscript. References are to be cited in the text by super scribed number and should be in the order in which they appear. References cited only in tables or in legends to figures should be numbered in accordance with a sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or illustration. The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. The list of references should be typed double spaced in the Vancouver style. Examples are given in Annexure II.
10. Check list for Tables
* Serially numbered in Arabic numerals?
* Short self explanatory heading given?
* Columns have headings?
* Units of data given?
* ‘n’ mentioned?
* Mean ± SD or Mean ± SEM given?
* Statistical significance of groups indicated by asterisks or other markers?
* P values given?
* Rows and columns properly aligned?
* Appropriate position in the text indicated?
11. Figures
Each figure must be numbered and a short descriptive caption must be provided. A computer drawn figure with good contrast is acceptable.
Check list for Figures
* Serially numbered?
* Self explanatory caption/legend should be given?
* X and Y axes graduated?
* X and Y axes titled (legend)?
* Units mentioned (if necessary)?
* Different symbols/markers for different groups given?
* SD or SEM represented (graphically)?
* Statistical significance indicated?
* Approximate position in the text marked?

Short communications

While other things remain the same as described above, these papers should be considerably small
in contents.

Clinical trials

It should include
* Title and unstructured abstract.
* Instruction- should cover scientific background and rationale of the study
* Methods:
1. Participants- Eligibility criteria for participants and the settings and locations where the data were collected.
2. Interventions- Precise details of the interventions intended for each group and how and when they were actually administered.
3. Objectives- Specific objectives and hypotheses.
4. Outcomes- Clearly defined primary and secondary outcome measures and, when applicable, any methods used to enhance the quality of measurements (e.g., multiple observations, training of assessors).
5. Sample size-How sample size was determined and, when applicable, explanation of any interim analyses and stopping rules.
6. Randomization, sequence generation- Method used to generate the random allocation sequence, including details of any restriction (e.g., blocking, stratification).

Case Reports

Interesting clinical cases (with pharmacologic significance) may be considered for publication. Those with photographs stand a better chance. The case reports should have an unstructured abstract, introduction, case history and Protection of patient right to privacy. Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures unless they have obtained informed consent from the patients.
1. Authors, neither the journals nor the publisher, need to obtain the patient consent form before the publication and have the form properly archived. The consent forms are not to be uploaded with the cover letter or sent through email to editorial or publisher offices.
2. If the manuscript contains patient images that preclude anonymity, or a description that has obvious indication to the identity of the patient, a statement about obtaining informed patient consent should be indicated in the manuscript.

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